Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan in early April, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the MnO2 could also be affected.
Introduction to Manganese Dioxide MnO2 Powder
Manganese dioxide is also known as manganese peroxide or black manganese oxide. It is the oxide of tetravalent manganese. The chemical formula is MnO2. The fHm (298K) is -520.71kJ/mol, the melting point is 847℃, and the density is 5.026 g/cm3. The natural MnO2 exists in pyrolusite, and it is a black rhombic crystal or black-brown powder. It has a tetrahedral lattice, which is amphoteric manganese oxide. It is insoluble in water and nitric acid, but gives off oxygen and forms manganese sulfate in hot concentrated sulfuric acid and is chlorinated to manganese chloride in hydrochloric acid. It is fused with caustic soda and oxidant, giving off carbon dioxide to form permanganate. Manganese dioxide is a strong oxidant and can cause combustion and explosion by friction or co-heating with organic matter or other oxidable substances such as sulfur, sulfide, and phosphide. The product exhibits reducibility with strong oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. MnO2 is converted into Mn2O3 when heated above 480℃ in air, and Mn3O4 when heated above 900℃. It is widely used in steelmaking, glass, ceramics, dry cells, etc.
In nature, it exists in the form of pyrolusite and hard manganese ore. It can be extracted from pyrolusite, and can also be prepared by heating decomposition of manganese nitrate or electrolytic manganese dioxide salt. γ -Mno2 is active and can be used as a cathode material for batteries to eliminate polarization. Manganese dioxide can be used as a rust remover, oxidizer, dry battery drying agent, and paint drying agent, also used in manganese salt preparation and the glass industry.
Physicochemical Properties of Manganese Dioxide MnO2 Powder
For manganese dioxide, oxygen atoms are at the top of the octahedron corner and manganese atoms in the octahedron. Octahedron is connected to form a single chain or double chain, forming a tunnel structure of the gap, octahedron, or hexagonal dense or square dense accumulation. Oxidizability: Manganese dioxide is a non-salt oxide, non-amphoteric oxide which does not react with either acid or base. In the presence of reducing agents, is oxidizing. Such as manganese dioxide into the hydrogen flow heating to 1400K to get manganese oxide. Manganese dioxide is heated in an ammonia gas stream to obtain brown and black manganese trioxide. Manganese dioxide is reacted with concentrated hydrochloric acid to obtain manganese chloride, chlorine gas, and water.
In the presence of strong oxidants, it also exhibits reducibility. If the manganese dioxide, potassium carbonate, and potassium nitrate or potassium chlorate mixed melting, people can get dark green melt, melt it in water cooling people can get six valence manganese compound potassium manganate. It is a strong oxidant in an acid medium. Strong oxidant, does not burn on its own, but it aids combustion, so please do not place it with flammable materials.
|Manganese Dioxide MnO2 Powder Properties|
|Other Names||manganese oxide, MnO2 powder|
|Solubility in H2O||insoluble|
Applications of Manganese Dioxide MnO2 Powder
1. Manganese dioxide is a very good decolorizing agent in the glass manufacturing industry, which can oxidize low ferric salt to high ferric salt, so that the blue-green glass into weak yellow.
2. In the electronic industry it is used to produce manganese zinc ferrite magnetic materials.
3. Used as the raw material of iron and manganese alloy in the steelmaking industry and heating agent in the casting industry.
4. Used in gas masks to absorb carbon monoxide.
5. In the chemical industry it can be used as an oxidant, catalyst for organic synthesis, paint, and ink desiccant.
6. Used as an accelerant for match industry, as a raw material for glaze medicine of ceramics and enamel and manganese salt.
7. Used for fireworks, water purification, iron removal, medicine, fertilizer and textile printing, dyeing, etc.
8. Electrolytic manganese dioxide is an excellent depolarizing agent of battery. Compared with the dry battery produced by natural discharge manganese dioxide, it has the characteristics of large discharge capacity, strong activity, small volume, and long life, so electrolytic manganese dioxide has become a very important raw material in the battery industry.
9. Electrolytic manganese dioxide due to its strong catalytic, oxidation/reduction, ion exchange, and adsorption capacity, after treatment and molding, it is a comprehensive excellent water purification filter material. Compared with the common use of activated carbon, zeolite, and other water purification filter material, it has a stronger ability to decolorize and remove metal.
Main Supplier of Manganese Dioxide MnO2 Powder
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Southern Copper Corp (SCCO.N) recently said its Peruvian mine remained closed after a six-week standoff with protesters and blamed the Peruvian government for failing to intervene in the safety of its 1,300 workers and their families.
The company said in a statement that a recent agreement to end protests at the Cuajone mine required the company to withdraw complaints against protest leaders because railways transporting minerals and supplies remained blocked. Production has been suspended since the end of February.
Peru's Energy Ministry said in a separate statement that it had also reached an agreement with Southern Copper to start talks to find common ground with local communities.
"If we shut down for a year, the government will stop receiving more than 3.1 billion soles ($830 million) in taxes and royalties, and 8,000 direct and indirect jobs will be lost. This is what we want to avoid, "Southern Copper added in the statement.
Peru has faced a wave of protests from indigenous communities, who accuse mining companies of not providing enough jobs and funding to poor local residents.
Central bank officials said last week that protests against copper mines such as MMG's Las Bambas and Southern Copper's Cuajone were dragging down the economy.
Peru is the world's second-largest copper producer and mining is an important source of tax revenue for the country. It is estimated that the supply and prices of the MnO2 will be influenced by that.
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